6 August 2018: In a joint statement, the foreign ministers of the EU, France, Germany and the United Kingdom declare “deeply regret the re-establishment of sanctions by the United States” and state that they are “determined to protect European economic actors who do legitimate business with Iran, in accordance with EU law and UN Security Council Resolution 2231”. They say that the continuation of the JCPOA is “a matter of respect for international agreements and a matter of international security.” 24 September 2005: The IAEA adopts, by 22 votes to 1, a resolution stating that Iran is not complying with its safeguard agreement, with 12 abstentions. The resolution specifies that the nature of Iran`s nuclear activities and the lack of security in their peaceful nature fall within the competence of the United Nations Security Council and pave the way for a future removal. July 21, 2017: The JCPOA Joint Committee meets for the sixth time to discuss the implementation of the agreement. In the late 1980s, Iran re-established its nuclear program with the support of Pakistan (which concluded a bilateral agreement with Iran in 1992), China (which did the same in 1990) and Russia (which did the same in 1992 and 1995) and the A.Q. Khan network.  Iran “has begun to pursue an indigenous nuclear fuel cycle capability by developing a uranium mine infrastructure and experimenting with the conversion and enrichment of uranium.”  The consequences of withdrawing an agreement and whether renegotiating the agreement is a realistic option are an area of disagreement between supporters and opponents of the JCPOA.  Senator Chuck Schumer, a Democrat from New York, who opposed the agreement, urged the U.S. government to maintain sanctions, strengthen them and “rebuild the hard path of diplomacy, no matter how difficult.”  Senator Bob Corker, Republican of Tennessee, said he thought it was “hyperbole” to say that the agreement was the only alternative to war.  President Obama, for his part, argued that renegotiating the agreement was unrealistic and said in his speech to American University that “there is a better deal.
… Relying on vague promises of hardness” and said: “Those who make this argument are either ignorant of Iranian society or they are not exactly with the American people. … Neither the Iranian government, nor the Iranian opposition, nor the Iranian people would accept what they would consider to be a total surrender of their sovereignty.  Obama also argued, “Those who say we can just walk away from this agreement and maintain sanctions are selling a fantasy.” Instead of strengthening our position, as some have suggested, the rejection of Congress would almost certainly lead to the lifting of multilateral sanctions, because “our closest allies in Europe or Asia, let alone China or Russia, will certainly not enforce existing sanctions for five, ten, fifteen more years, according to American diktats.