But the Rowland-Molina hypothesis has been hotly contested by representatives of the aerosol and halocarbon industry. The chairman of DuPont`s board of directors was quoted as saying that the ozone depletion theory was “a science fiction story… A shipment of rubbish… total nonsense.” Robert Abplanalp, President of Precision Valve Corporation (inventor of the first practical valve of the aerosol bomb), wrote to the clerk of UC Irvine complaining about Rowland`s public statements (Roan, 56). The parties to the Montreal Protocol amended the protocol to allow, among other things, the control of new chemicals and the establishment of a financial mechanism to allow developing countries to comply. The Montreal Protocol also contains a unique adaptation provision that allows the parties to the protocol to react quickly to new scientific information and agree to accelerate the reduction of chemicals already covered by the protocol. These adaptations will automatically apply to all countries that have ratified the protocol. Since then, the Montreal Protocol has been strengthened several times by the control of additional ozone depletion substances (SOOs) and by the postponement of the date when already regulated substances must disappear. In addition to the adaptations and amendments to the Montreal Protocol, the parties to the protocol meet annually and make a series of decisions to enable the effective implementation of this important instrument. The Montreal Protocol, which was finalized in 1987, is a comprehensive agreement to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by gradually reducing the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (SDGs). The Montreal Protocol has proven to be innovative and successful and is the first treaty to be universally ratified by all countries of the world. With this global participation, the Montreal Protocol stimulated global investments in alternative technologies, many of which were developed by U.S. companies, and put the ozone layer at risk on a repair path.
The Montreal Protocol reflects a convergence of the interests of scientists who wanted a level playing field in the face of growing threats to the ozone layer, the private sector, when companies reacted to new national laws on the control of harmful chemicals, non-governmental organizations that opposed environmental protection, and national governments that increasingly see an international agreement as in their interest. The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol were ratified by 196 nations and the European Union, making them the first universally ratified treaties in the history of the United Nations.  Because of its widespread adoption and implementation, the Montreal Protocol has been praised as an example of exceptional international cooperation, with Kofi Annan calling it “perhaps the most successful international agreement to date.”   The exit from the HFC puts Australia in a strong position to meet its international obligations under the Montreal Protocol. At talks in Kigali, Rwanda, in October 2016, representatives of Australia and most of the other 196 countries parties to the protocol reached an agreement in which 85% of the world`s CFCs will expire. The Montreal Protocol is widely regarded as the most successful agreement on environmental protection.